The names of all of the bodies contain the word maya. Each of the pancha kosha can be seen as obstructing the pure light of the transcendental Self. By identifying with these different layers of our being we forget who we truly are in essence. All of the koshas are part of the manifestation of the true Self. It is the least subtle of the five coverings that obstruct the freedom of the Supreme Self. It leads the jiva individual soul to identify with the physical body.
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The knowledge and understanding of the atman invariably results in Jiwanmukti i. Moksha or "Spiritual liberation". Spiritual Liberation is of the nature of bliss in which there is complete negation of all sorrow, it does not arise by mere study of sastras, sacrifice to gods, performance of karmas and meditation on the divinities, these acts do not result in the knowledge of the unity of atman.
Atman is Brahman who is of the nature of satyam, jnanam and anantam, and the knower of Brahman becomes Brahman. The Atman is the substratum of the consciousness of "I". Anatman is everything that is not Atman. All objects of consciousness are called Anatman, including the mind and the ego. The samsara is the vast turbulent ocean which is the embodiment of avidya and its effects that cannot be crossed without the aid of perfect wisdom; the samsara is the anatman.
By non-realisation of the true nature of the atman, the atman is mistaken as the karana sarira "causal body" , suksma sarira "subtle body" and sthula sarira "gross body" which bodies constitute the anatman. For a person who is unaware of the atman there is no other go except to do karmas intended for purification of the mind. This body consists of Annamaya kosha and Pranamaya Kosha.
The atman is behind the Panchakoshas. The Sathula sarira is the Annamayakosha food-ful, consisting of the gross body. The Suksma sarira is made up of the Pranamayakosha energy-ful, the subtle body , the Manomayakosha instinctive, the perceptual body and the Vigyanamayakosha cognitive, the conscious body.
The Karana sarira is the Anandamayakosha blissful, the transcendental body. The doctrine of Panchkoshas represents the hierarchy of human values  and is held to be a useful springboard for a modern scientific understanding of cosmology and evolution. It is visible, dependent and impure.
It is not the atman because it did not exist before its origination and ceases to exist once it is destroyed. It is subject to origination and destruction every moment. It is the anatman because it is not in the beginning and at the end, is non-existent also in the present. It does not know itself. The deluded mind that does not inquire considers his atman to be this body or kosha.
Such a person cannot enjoy bliss. The Prana in combination with the five organs of action constitutes the Pranamayakosha. The Annamayakosha is an effect of the Pranamayakosha. Prana is the life of beings and the Universal life. Whatever happens in the Annamayakosha is wrongly identified as belonging to the atman by reason of its being pervaded by the Pranamayakosha which is effect of Vayu , and totally unaware and dependent.
It is the "self" having Pranamayakosha as its body. It creates difference of names etc. It is powerful because bondage and liberation depend on the mind which producing attachment binds a person and which by creating aversion for them liberates them from that self-made bondage.
It pervades the Pranamayakosha. It is the sacrificial fire, the five organs are the priests who pour into this fire the oblations of sense-objects, which fire fuelled by various vasanas burns out the world created and expanded by the mind that when fouled by rajas "projection" and tamas "concealment" superimposes the samsara but when free of rajas and tamas can bring about the state of being established in Brahman.
This layer is made of the intellect and knowledge. This is the part of mind that makes decisions, and takes ownership of action and becomes an ego. Vijnanamaya kosha also belongs to the Suksma sarira and pervades the Manomayakosha that pervades the Pranamayakosha which pervades the Annamayakosha.
Buddhi with its organs of knowledge and its actions having the characteristics of an agent is the Vigyanakosha, the cause of samsara. It has the power of reflection of the chaitanya which it accompanies as a modification of Prakrti avidya and characterised by knowledge and action and always identified with the body, organs etc.
This kosha is endowed with jnana and to it belong the waking and dream states and the experiences of joy and sorrow. Being very luminous in close proximity of the Paramatman deluded by which upadhi it is subject to samsara, this atman which is compacted of vigyanana and shining in the heart near the pranas being immutable becomes a doer and enjoyer in the midst of the upadhis. Its "jivabhava-existential-character" i. Jivahood, persists so long as there is delusion as it is born of mithyajnana.
Though avidya is beginningless it is not eternal. This is the bliss of the Atman. This bliss is experienced when we fall into deep sleep.
Anandamaya kosha is the last layer and it is the closest layer to the Atman. It is a modification of avidya and appears as a reflection of the atman compacted of absolute bliss.
It is fully manifested in the dreamless deep sleep. It is not the atman because it is connected with upadhis "limitations" and a modification of Prakrti as an effect of good deeds. The Panchkoshas are anatman that hide the atman, these koshas or sheaths are required to be systematically removed. Their removal brings to fore a void which void is also required to be removed. After removal of the five sheaths and the resultant void through the process of negation, what remains is the Atman; and then the non-existence of all the modifications beginning with the ahamkara is self-witnessed, the self that witnesses is itself the supreme Self.
The Vedanta conceives the expression of the gross universe possible by traversing through all these stages of emanation from the cloud of Maya covering the face of Brahman to Sthula bhutas or gross matter with all its multifarious aspect including gross energy.
Human body has three bodies where all these five Koshas reside. This is the gross, physical body. This is the sheath of the physical self, named from the fact that it is nourished by food. Annamay Kosh is matter in the form of physical body sustained by intake of food. It includes five organs of perception sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch , and the five organs of action prehension, locomotion, articulation, excretion, procreation. This sheath has the most dense and slow vibrational frequency. This body cannot exist without contact with the other koshas.
Inside the Pancha Kosha: Uncovering the 5 Layers of Self
Pancha Kosha is the concept in yogic philosophy that there are five layers, or sheaths, around the human soul. Then one finds unity as the relationship of Atman with Brahman the universal Consciousness is realized. Learn More Yogapedia explains Pancha Kosha The model of Pancha Kosha comes from the Taittirya Upanishad and is said to be one of the most ancient conceptualizations of the human being. Once they are removed, they leave a void, which also needs to be removed to reveal Atman.
The knowledge and understanding of the atman invariably results in Jiwanmukti i. Moksha or "Spiritual liberation". Spiritual Liberation is of the nature of bliss in which there is complete negation of all sorrow, it does not arise by mere study of sastras, sacrifice to gods, performance of karmas and meditation on the divinities, these acts do not result in the knowledge of the unity of atman. Atman is Brahman who is of the nature of satyam, jnanam and anantam, and the knower of Brahman becomes Brahman.
This concept, explained in the Taittiriya Upanishad, gives you a map to understand your true self. You are a multi-layered being, from your physical body to your subtle bliss body. The physical, tangible body is only your external self, like your outer peel. Stripping away this layer exposes a slightly more subtle layer, the pranic body. One more layer inward is the mental body, then the intellectual body, and finally the bliss body. Each sheath can be transcended through yogic practices.