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Under mercantilism, the foreigner, although otherwise treated like the subject in legal terms, typically enjoyed greater freedom to emigrate than native- born subjects. The clarification of the legal concept of the foreigner, whose movements were to be restricted as such, would first require much impassioned debate and bureaucratic develop- ment, and would ultimately be forged in the fires of military conflict.

This study focuses on the vicissitudes of documentary controls on movement in Western Europe and the United States from the time of the French Revolution until the relatively recent past.

Cambridge University Press Amazon. The Bill nonetheless reflected a dramatic shift in mood from the ebullient September days. John Torpey : The invention of the passport. Surveillance, Citizenship and the State One of the first steps taken by the leaders of the revolution to obliterate local particularism in favor of national integration had been the creation of departements to replace the old provinces into which France had traditionally been divided.

At least at first, the Directory held to the 7 December law concerning passports for departure from the coun- try. The subsequent chapters are dedicated to the legislation of Prussia and the Nordeutsche Bund and their efforts to liberalize the free movement of persons, to the proliferation of identification papers in the US, France, Italy and Germany before War World I, and to the growing restrictions on cross border movements in the interwar period.

Comparative historical sociologyComparative religion [3]. While I had the good fortune to enjoy an extended colloquy with Robert Wohl in the context of a National Endowment for the Humanities-sponsored seminar on intel- lectuals and politics during the summer of when the idea for this study was first formulated, the others simply responded to an unsolicited query from a young scholar unknown to them.

The process also paralleled the rationalization and nationalization of poor relief, for communal obligations to provide such relief were an important source of the desire paseport controls on movement. The enormous extension of desertion in the year IV and the year V — probably the peak — is the joun striking testimony to the powerlessness of the Directory almost anywhere outside Paris. The general result of the process was that local borders were replaced by national ones, and that the chief dif- ficulty associated with human movement was entry into, not departure from, territorial spaces.

Toward the end of the year, however, the deputies came around to the view that the restrictions on movement within France, at least, were proving counterproductive. Passports, as well as identification cards of various kinds, have been central to these pro- cesses, although documentary controls on movement and identification have been more or less stringently developed and enforced in different countries at various times. Moreover, although the Convention demonstrated a charming faith in the efficacy of its pronouncements, it seems improbable that its regulations were implemented with any strict uniformity.

Codet asserted that the vast majority of those who traveled were honest people who, without passports, had no way of demonstrating that they were such, nor of being certain that the people they met on the roads would be well-disposed toward them. Retrieved August 30, By subjecting foreigners as well as French citizens to these pass- port requirements, the new restrictions on movement were part of an important shift in the legal status of foreigners in European states.

As we have seen, however, the likelihood is that it would have been relatively easy to circumvent these require- ments. Still, the decree bespoke a vindictive mood, especially against the poor. In between these two measures, the Convention — at the advice of the Committees of Public Safety and General Security inventoon banished from France all foreigners who had entered the country after 1 January The Breton Codet began the discussion by defending the restrictions anew as a small sacri- fice of liberty in favor of the defense of the larger liberty that, in his view, the revolution had wrought.

The reach of the state, in other words, cannot exceed its grasp. After some further minor sparring about the inconveniences asso- ciated with the passport regulations, the Assembly adjourned. TOP Related Posts.


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