Biography[ edit ] He received a Jewish education in rabbinic literature from his father Judah ben Saul ibn Tibbon. Other teachers in Lunel taught him about medicine, Arabic and the secular knowledge of his age. Samuel ibn Tibbon married and had children, including a son, Moses ibn Tibbon , who also translated works from Arabic to Hebrew. He traveled to Barcelona , Toledo , and Alexandria — Finally he settled in Marseilles.
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He was a grandson of Samuel ben Judah ibn Tibbon. Jacob occupies a considerable place in the history of astronomy in the Middle Ages. His works, translated into Latin, were quoted by Copernicus, Reinhold, and Clavius. In the controversy between the Maimonists and the anti-Maimonists Jacob defended science against the attacks of Abba Mari and his party; the energetic attitude of the community of Montpellier on that occasion was due to his influence. Jacob became known by a series of Hebrew translations of Arabic scientific and philosophical works, and above all by two original works on astronomy.
These tables, also, were translated into Latin and enjoyed the greatest repute. Judah ben Moses ibn Tibbon: Rabbi in Montpellier; took part in the dispute between the followers and the opponents of Maimonides. He induced his relative Jacob ben Machir ibn Tibbon to support the Maimonidean party by pointing out that the anti-Maimonideans were the opponents of his grandfather Samuel ibn Tibbon and of the son-in-law of the latter, Jacob ben Abba Mari ben Samson ben Anatoli. According to Jacob ben Machir ibn Tibbon ib.
None of them are extant. Bibliography: Perles, Salomo b. Abraham b. Adereth, pp. He left his native place in , probably on account of persecution by the Almohades, and went to Lunel in southern France. Benjamin of Tudela mentions him as a physician there in He had two daughters whose marriage caused him much anxiety. Judah was very active as a translator, his works including the translation into Hebrew of the following: Translations of Philosophic Works.
Only a small fragment of it has been preserved published by A. Goldberg, with notes by R. Kirchheim, Frankfort-on-the-Main, Isaac al-Barceloni and Isaac ha-Levi had already translated this dictionary as far as the letter "lamed," and Judah finished it in Constantinople, Spurious Works Attributed to Judah.
This translation is ascribed to Ibn Tibbon in a very doubtful note in Neubauer, "Cat. In no other manuscript is Judah ibn Tibbon called the translator. Further, the note mentions Seville instead of Granada as his home. This translation, however, is not extant; and it is altogether improbable that Judah translated the work in question. It is also doubtful whether he wrote a commentary on the last chapter of Proverbs. Steinschneider, Berlin, ; with an English translation by H.
His Ethical Will. It gives a deep insight into the soul of the man and his relation to his indisputably greater son, Samuel.
Against the latter his chief complaint is that he never initiated his father into his literary or business affairs, never asked for his advice, and, in fact, hid everything from him.
He recommends Samuel to practise writing in Arabic, since Jews like Samuel ha-Nagid, for example, attained rank and position solely through being able to write in that language.
He exhorts him to morality and to the study of the Torah as well as of the profane sciences, including medicine. He is to read grammatical works on Sabbaths and festivals, and is not to neglect the reading of "Mishle" and of "Ben Mishle. He further advises his son to observe rigorously the laws of diet, lest he, like others, become ill frequently in consequence of intemperate and unwholesome eating, which would not fail to engender mistrust in him as a physician on the part of the general public.
As thou thyself seest, most students run hither and thither searching for books without being able to find them.
Look over thy Hebrew books every month, thy Arabic ones every two months, thy bound books every three months. Keep thy library in order, so that thou wilt not need to search for a book.
Prepare a list of the books on each shelf, and place each book on its proper shelf. Take care also of the loose, separate leaves in thy books, because they contain exceedingly important things which I myself have collected and written down.
Lose no writing and no letter which I leave thee. Cover thy book-shelves with beautiful curtains, protect them from water from the roof, from mice, and from all harm, because they are thy best treasure. He advises his son to read the weekly portion in Arabic every Sabbath so as to initiate himself into the art of translating, in case he should ever feel an inclination for it.
He recommends to him an easy, pregnant, elegant style, not overburdened with words; further, he is to avoid foreign words and unusual and affected constructions, and is to use words which have a harmonious sound and are easy to pronounce. He always lays great weight upon the advantages of having a beautiful, clear handwriting and of using beautiful paper, good ink, etc. The testament closes with a poem summarizing the contents of the will. Views on Translation. He knows that he is laying himself open to adverse criticism with his translation, as is the case with every innovation.
Judah is also of the opinion that the Hebrew translation can not always reproduce the pregnancy of the Arabic original. He holds that a translator should first make a strictly literal rendering of the original, and then revise his translation as though it were an original production of his own. For his creation of new word-forms in the use of which he was not without precedents , and for the rabbinicisms in his Hebrew style, he excuses himself to the reader by saying that they are unavoidable.
It is true that he often translated the mistakes of the original without heeding the sense, or rather lack of sense, expressed therein. Maimonides speaks very flatteringly of Judah in a letter to Samuel. Bibliography: Abrahams, in J. Tibbon; Steinschneider, Jewish Literature, pp. Moses ibn Tibbon: Original Works. Physician and author; born in Marseilles; flourished between and ; son of Samuel ibn Tibbon and father of the Judah ibn Tibbon who was prominent in the Maimonidean controversy which took place at Montpellier.
The number of works written by Moses ibn Tibbon makes it probable that he reached a great age. He wrote the following works: 1 Commentary on Canticles Lyck, Written under the influence of Maimonides, it is of a philosophical and allegorical character, and is similar to that by his brother-in-law Abba Mari ben Simson ben Anatoli, whom he quotes repeatedly.
In a long preface he deals with the poetical form and the philosophical content of the book, especially discussing the three classes of poetry according to the "Organon" of Aristotle. This commentary is quoted in the Commentary on Canticles p. Azulai, in his "Shem ha-Gedolim" i. But an ancient authority, Judah Mosconi c. According to Steinschneider, it was merely a supercommentary on Abraham ibn Ezra see "Cat. Neubauer, "Cat. Venice gives only the title. Its tendency is apologetical.
After Raymund de Pennaforte had established schools, in which Arabic and Hebrew were taught, for the purpose of converting Jews and Moors, Christian clerics, in their incomplete knowledge of the rabbinical writings, attempted to cast scorn on the, anthropomorphisms of the Midrashim. Moses ibn Tibbon traces this to those who took the anthropomorphic passages in a literal instead of, as Maimonides had taught, an allegorical sense see Isaac de Lattes, l.
According to a Bodleian manuscript, No. They include versions of Arabic works on philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, and medicine. The name of the author of the work from which the translation was made precedes, in the following list, the title by which the translation is known. His most important translations are as follows: Averroes: Commentaries, etc. Letterbode," iii. Euclid: "Shorashim," or "Yesodot" "Elements"; Steinschneider, l.
Fillpowski, in a Hebrew almanac of Leipsic, For his other translations see Steinschneider, l. This translation was one of his first, if not the first Steinschneider, "Hebr. Commentary on the Mishnah. No complete manuscript of the Arabic original is known.
The terminology here used by Moses ibn Tibbon has been adopted throughout Hebrew philosophical literature l. Bibliography: Steinschneider, Jewish Literature, pp. Moses ben Isaac ibn Tibbon appears as a copyist on the island of Candia in the early part of the fifteenth century Steinschneider, "Mose Antologia Israelitica," , ii. Bionguda was the youngest of three daughters born to Bella, the daughter of Moses ibn Tibbon.
Samuel ibn Tibbon, who at that time was probably living at Marseilles, contested the legality of the marriage to Isaac ben Isaac, saying that he had made Bionguda his legal wife while she was still living at Naples. Bionguda denied this. Bibliography: Geiger, Wiss. Samuel ben Judah ibn Tibbon: Physician and philosophical writer; born about in Lunel; died about in Marseilles. He received from his father and other able teachers in Lunel a thorough education in medicine, in Arabic, in Jewish literature, and in all the secular knowledge of his age.
Finally he settled in Marseilles. Original Works. In comparison with his translations, the original works of Samuel are not numerous. When finishing his translation of the "Moreh" he felt the necessity of giving an alphabetical glossary of the foreign words that he had used in his translation.
In the introduction to the glossary he divides these words into five classes: 1 words taken mainly from the Arabic; 2 rare words occurring in the Mishnah and in the Gemara; 3 Hebrew verbs and adjectives derived from substantives by analogy with the Arabic; 4 homonyms, used with special meanings; and 5 words to which new meanings were given by analogy with the Arabic. He gives also a list of corrections which he desired to be made in the copies of his translation of the "Moreh.
Bisliches, Presburg, Geiger, l. It deals with physical and metaphysical subjects, interpreting in an allegoric-philosophical manner the Bible verses cited by the author.
Judah ben Saul ibn Tibbon
He was a grandson of Samuel ben Judah ibn Tibbon. Jacob occupies a considerable place in the history of astronomy in the Middle Ages. His works, translated into Latin, were quoted by Copernicus, Reinhold, and Clavius. In the controversy between the Maimonists and the anti-Maimonists Jacob defended science against the attacks of Abba Mari and his party; the energetic attitude of the community of Montpellier on that occasion was due to his influence. Jacob became known by a series of Hebrew translations of Arabic scientific and philosophical works, and above all by two original works on astronomy. These tables, also, were translated into Latin and enjoyed the greatest repute.
Written under the influence of Maimonides , it is of a philosophical and allegorical character, and is similar to that by his brother-in-law Abba Mari ben Simson ben Anatoli , whom he quotes repeatedly. Commentary to the Pentateuch. Judah Mosconi c. According to Steinschneider , it was a supercommentary on Abraham ibn Ezra. Sefer ha-Tanninim, mentioned by Isaac de Lattes l.
Samuel Ibn Tibbon
During the period — in particular—from the Almohad persecutions in Islamic Spain to the expulsion of the Jews from France—much of the classical tradition, as translated into Arabic and developed in the Islamic world, was made available in Hebrew. This included works of philosophy and theology, logic and grammar, mathematics, astronomy, astrology, and medicine. The main translators during this period were members of a single family. Judah Ibn Tibbon c.
Moses ibn Tibbon
He was induced to undertake this work by Meshullam ben Jacob and his son Asher, at whose desire he translated the first treatise, in After its completion Joseph Kimhi translated the other nine treatises and afterward the first one also. Goldberg, with notes by R. Kirchheim, Frankfurt-on-the-Main,