GE2021 NOTES PDF

Discuss about the Act, and its amendment — Describe about Water Act — Describe the important waste land reclamation practices. Describe environmental ethics in detail. Discuss the modern techniques of rain water harvesting.

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What are the principles of environmental education? The principle of environmental education is to educate people about various environmental issues, creating awareness and to preserve the quality of our environment. Mention the Scope and importance of Environmental studies. Studying the interrelationships among biotic and abiotic components for Sustainable ecosystem. Working out a way to use our resources in a sustainable manner. Studying and curbing the pollution from existing and new industries.

Stopping the use of biological and nuclear weapons for destruction of human race. Managing the unpredictable disasters. Educating the society and creating a environmentally aware population. Define Ecology? Ecology is the Study of the distribution and abundance of organisms, the flows of energy and materials between abiotic and biotic components of ecosystems.

Bring out the functional features of an ecosystem. Sun is the chief source of energy. Transfer of energy from one tropic level to another tropic level through food is called food chain. Production , Consumption and Decomposition are the main functions of ecosystem 5. What are Ecological Pyramids?

Give examples. An ecological pyramid shows the relationship between consumers and producers at different tropic levels in an ecosystem? There are three ecological pyramids recognized by ecologists: Pyramid of Numbers, Pyramid of Biomass, Pyramid of Energy 7.

What is Ecological Succession? Mention its types. There are two types of ecological succession:? Primary Succession?

Secondary Succession 8. What are the hot- spots of biodiversity? A biodiversity hotspot is a region with a significant reservoir of biodiversity that is threatened with destruction.

An area is designated as a hot spot when it contains at least 0. There are 25 such hot spots of biodiversity on a global level, out of which two are present in India namely 1. Western Ghats and 2. Eastern Himalayas 9. Justify India to be a great spot of biodiversity. India is one of the four mega diversity nations of the Asia.

India has vast geographic region being a home of important plant species of cereals, millets, fruits, vegetables, spices, etc. India has two hotspots of biodiversity and more than 1. List the threats towards biodiversity. Habitat loss 2. Poaching of wildlife 3.

Explain the components, Characteristics and biodiversity of Forest ecosystem? A forest is an area with a high density of trees. The forest ecosystems are of great concern from the environmental point of view. In a forest, the producers are mainly trees. Apart from trees, climbers, epiphytes, shrubs and ground vegetation. In a forest, consumers are of three main types; Primary Consumers? These are Herbivores which feed directly on producers.

Eg: Ants, Beetles, Bugs, spiders etc. Larger animals such as Elephants, Deer, giraffe etc. Secondary Consumers? These are carnivores and feed on primary consumers. Tertiary Consumers? These are secondary carnivores and feed on secondary consumers? These include top carnivores like Lion, Tiger. These include wide variety of saprotrophic micro- organism like; Bacteria Bacillus Sp. Fungi Aspergillus sp. Actinomycetes Streptomyces. Therefore, nutrients are released for reuse.

Abiotic components? In addition dead organic debris is also found littered in forests. Explain the structure and functional features of aquatic, desert and grassland ecosystems. Aquatic ecosystems deal with biotic community present in water bodies. Depending upon the quality and nature of water, the aquatic ecosystem are categorized into:? Freshwater Ecosystem and? Marine Ecosystem. Freshwater Ecosystems?

Freshwater ecosystems cover 0. Aquatic ecosystems perform many important environmental functions. They recycle nutrients, purify water, attenuate floods, recharge ground water and provide habitats for wildlife.

Aquatic ecosystems are also used for human recreation, and are very important to the tourism industry, especially in coastal region. There are three basic types of freshwater ecosystems: Lentic: slow-moving water, including Pools, Ponds, and Lakes. Lotic: rapidly-moving water, for example Streams and Rivers. Ponds are often exposed to tremendous human pressure which significantly affects the system. Lakes are usually big standing freshwater bodies. They have a shallow water zone called Littoral zone; an open water zone where effective?

Biotic components Producer Organisms? It includes submerged, free floating and amphibious macrophytes like Hydrilla, Utricularia, Wolfia, Azolla, Typha etc.

Consumer Organisms? Primary consumers:These are zooplanktons ciliates, flagellates, other protozoan, small crustaceans and benthos. Secondary consumers: These are carnivores like insects and fishes feeding on herbivores?

Tertiary consumers: These are the large fishes feeding on small fishes. Decomposers Micro — organisms like bacteria, fungi and actinomyctes.

CARTEA INTELEPCIUNII LUI SOLOMON PDF

Anna University

What are the principles of environmental education? The principle of environmental education is to educate people about various environmental issues, creating awareness and to preserve the quality of our environment. Mention the Scope and importance of Environmental studies. Studying the interrelationships among biotic and abiotic components for Sustainable ecosystem. Working out a way to use our resources in a sustainable manner.

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Cluster Analysis Classification and prediction analyze class-labeled data objects, where as clustering analyzes data objects without consulting a known class label. Figure 1. In general, the class labels are not present in the training data simply because they are not known to begin with. Clustering can be used to generate such labels. The objects are clustered or grouped based on the principle of maximizing the intraclass similarity and minimizing the interclass similarity. That is, clusters of objects are formed so that objects within a cluster have high similarity in comparison to one another, but are very dissimilar to objects in other clusters.

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UNIT -1 - ENVIRONMENT, ECOSYSTEM AND BIODIVERSITY (Question Bank with Answers) | EduRev Notes

Goramar Write note on salient ge of Environmental protection act and wild life protection act 7. Anna University — B. Explain in detail the causes and effects of marine and noise pollution 3. PC-Based 7-Segment rolling display. Write short notes on threats to bio diversity 8. Write short notes on i Bhopal gas tragedy and ii Chernobyl disaster 4.

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