Most data on E. Hence, the genus of Endolimax remains largely unexplored in terms of morphology, taxonomy, genetic diversity, host specificity, and epidemiology. In this review, we seek to provide an overview of the work that has been performed on the parasite since the genus Endolimax was described by Kuenen and Swellengrebel in and suggest activities that may pave the way for a better understanding of E. Keywords: Diagnosis, epidemiology, infectious diseases, protozoon, public health INTRODUCTION The genus Endolimax appears to consist of a large number of species based on its reported occurrence in a vast range of mammals, and it has moreover been described in birds, reptiles, and amphibians. Descriptions have been based on morphology and sometimes limited to identification of a cyst stage.
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This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Blastocystis hominis and Endolimax nana exist as two separate parasitic organisms; however co-infection with the two individual parasites has been well documented. Although often symptomatic in immunocompromised individuals, the pathogenicity of the organisms in immunocompetent subjects causing gastrointestinal symptoms has been debated, with studies revealing mixed results.
Clinically, both B. We report the case of a year-old immunocompetent male presenting with chronic diarrhea and abdominal pain secondary to B. Our case illustrates that clinicians should be cognizant of both B. Such awareness will aid in a timely diagnosis and possible parasitic eradication with resolution of gastrointestinal symptoms. Key Words: Blastocystis hominis, Endolimax nana, Co-infection, Chronic diarrhea Introduction Blastocystis hominis and Endolimax nana are two intestinal parasitic organisms that are distributed worldwide with a higher prevalence in tropical and sub-tropical climates.
Co-infection of these organisms occurs due to their identical mode of transmissions, via the fecal-oral route and ingestion of cysts from contaminated water supplies. When ingested, these parasites are commonly reported to be pathogenic in immunocompromised individuals, resulting in a milieu of gastrointestinal symptoms ranging from mild abdominal pain and flatulence to acute and sometimes chronic diarrhea.
Diagnosis of the infectious agents is made through stool analysis for ova and parasites. Stool specimens are examined for cysts by light microscopy after wet mount preparation, trichrome staining and formal-ethyl acetate concentration.
We report the case of a recently emigrated year-old male with chronic diarrhea and abdominal pain secondary to B. Case Report A year-old male who had recently emigrated from El Salvador presented to the clinic with complaints of diffuse abdominal pain and diarrhea for the past 6 weeks.
He stated that 6 weeks before he had begun noticing diffuse, intermittent abdominal pain that was neither relieved nor aggravated by any factors. He described the pain as sharp, and stated that episodes would last approximately 30 min before resolving by themselves.
The patient also stated that for nearly 6 weeks, he had been having diarrhea, described as 4—5 loose bowel movements daily. He described the diarrhea as large-volume, watery, brown stool, which was non-bloody and void of mucus.
He denied any unintentional weight loss, nausea, vomiting, intermittent constipation, melena, hematemesis, fevers or chills. He also denied any recent travel, sick contacts, changes in dietary habits or any recent antibiotic use. Past medical and surgical history was unremarkable and family history was not significant, including the absence of any malignancy or gastrointestinal disorders. He denied the use of any tobacco, alcohol or recreational drugs and stated that he was taking no medications at home.
He stated that he had never had sexual intercourse before and had never received blood transfusions. As part of a routine physical and laboratory examination prior to arrival in the United States 8 weeks earlier, purified protein derivative testing for tuberculosis and screening for human immunodeficiency virus had yielded negative results. Physical examination revealed a well-built male in mild distress. Examination of the oral mucosa was significant for dry mucosal membranes, with no evidence of oral thrush.
Abdominal examination was remarkable for mild epigastric tenderness without guarding, rebound tenderness or rigidity. Digital rectal examination was performed without evidence of overt bleeding. Laboratory evaluation including a complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic panel, thyroid stimulating hormone and coagulation panel were all within normal limits. Fecal occult blood testing was negative, as was testing for Helicobacter pylori stool antigen.
Stool cultures were negative for bacterial or viral pathogens. Stool examination for ova and parasites performed was positive for B.
How Is Endolimax Nana Treated?
Doses of metronidazole, nitazoxanide and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole have been shown to treat infections of Edolimax nana that cause gastrointestinal distress, such as acute diarrhea, according to Case Reports in Gastroenterology. Most humans carry E. In the case of one year-old male with a properly working immune system, he complained of nausea, diarrhea, vomiting and abdominal pain. Doctors discovered he had a co-infection of B. The point of the paper was to demonstrate these two parasites may not be completely harmless as the Centers for Disease Control reports. As of December , there are no treatment recommendations for E.
Mom Chronic diarrhea related to Endolimax nana response to treatment with metronidazole. Uniquely among intestinal amebae, E. J Egypt Soc Parasitol ; What is that meant? The indirect hemagglutination IHA test has been replaced by commercially available EIA test kits for routine serodiagnosis of amebiasis. Comparison of real-time PCR rationales for differential laboratory diagnosis of amebiasis.
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