Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival. Widespread information nowadays about the endangered status of many prominent species, such as the tiger and elephants, might make the need for such a convention seem obvious. But at the time when the ideas for CITES were first formed, in the s, international discussion of the regulation of wildlife trade for conservation purposes was something relatively new. Annually, international wildlife trade is estimated to be worth billions of dollars and to include hundreds of millions of plant and animal specimens. The trade is diverse, ranging from live animals and plants to a vast array of wildlife products derived from them, including food products, exotic leather goods, wooden musical instruments, timber, tourist curios and medicines. Levels of exploitation of some animal and plant species are high and the trade in them, together with other factors, such as habitat loss, is capable of heavily depleting their populations and even bringing some species close to extinction.
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Participation is voluntary, and countries that have agreed to be bound by the Convention are known as Parties. Rather it provides a framework respected by each Party, which must adopt their own domestic legislation to implement CITES at the national level. Often, domestic legislation is either non-existent especially in Parties that have not ratified it , or with penalties with the gravity of the crime and insufficient deterrents to wildlife traders.
Trust Fund money is not available to Parties to improve implementation or compliance. These activities, and all those outside Secretariat activities training, species specific programmes such as Monitoring the Illegal Killing of Elephants - MIKE must find external funding, mostly from donor countries and regional organizations such as the European Union. Although the Convention itself does not provide for arbitration or dispute in the case of noncompliance, 36 years of CITES in practice has resulted in several strategies to deal with infractions by Parties.
The Secretariat, when informed of an infraction by a Party, will notify all other parties. The Secretariat will give the Party time to respond to the allegations and may provide technical assistance to prevent further infractions.
Other actions the Convention itself does not provide for but that derive from subsequent COP resolutions may be taken against the offending Party. These include: Mandatory confirmation of all permits by the Secretariat Suspension of cooperation from the Secretariat A formal warning A visit by the Secretariat to verify capacity Recommendations to all Parties to suspend CITES related trade with the offending party  Dictation of corrective measures to be taken by the offending Party before the Secretariat will resume cooperation or recommend resumption of trade Bilateral sanctions have been imposed on the basis of national legislation e.
Infractions may include negligence with respect to permit issuing, excessive trade, lax enforcement, and failing to produce annual reports the most common.
Originally, CITES addressed depletion resulting from demand for luxury goods such as furs in Western countries, but with the rising wealth of Asia, particularly in China, the focus changed to products demanded there, particularly those used for luxury goods such as ivory or shark fins or for superstitious purposes such as rhinoceros horn.
As of the demand was massive and had expanded to include thousands of species previously considered unremarkable and in no danger of extinction such as manta rays or pangolins. It was then open for signature until 31 December It entered into force after the 10th ratification by a signatory country, on 1 July Countries that signed the Convention become Parties by ratifying, accepting or approving it.
By the end of , all signatory countries had become Parties. States that were not signatories may become Parties by acceding to the Convention. As of October , the Convention has parties, including states and the European Union. UN observer the Holy See is also not a member. At that time it entered into force only for those States that had accepted the amendment.
The amended text of the Convention will apply automatically to any State that becomes a Party after 29 November For States that became party to the Convention before that date and have not accepted the amendment, it will enter into force 60 days after they accept it. All import, export, re-export and introduction from the sea of species covered by the Convention has to be authorized through a licensing system. According to Article IX of the Convention, Management and Scientific Authorities, each Party to the Convention must designate one or more Management Authorities in charge of administering that licensing system and one or more Scientific Authorities to advise them on the effects of trade on the status of CITES-listed species.
Appendices[ edit ] Roughly 5, species of animals and 29, species of plants are protected by CITES against over-exploitation through international trade. Each protected species or population is included in one of three lists, called appendices   explained below. The Appendix that lists a species or population reflects the extent of the threat to it and the controls that apply to the trade.
Species may be split-listed meaning that some populations of a species are on one Appendix, while some are on another. The African bush elephant Loxodonta africana is currently split-listed, with all populations except those of Botswana, Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe listed in Appendix I.
There are also species that have only some populations listed in an Appendix. One example is the pronghorn Antilocapra americana , a ruminant native to North America.
Its Mexican population is listed in Appendix I, but its U. Species are proposed for inclusion in or deletion from the Appendices at meetings of the Conference of the Parties CoP , which are held approximately once every three years, the most recent of which was CoP CoP 17 in Johannesburg, South Africa from 24 September to 5 October at the Sandton Convention Center. These discussions are usually among the most contentious at CoP meetings.
There has been increasing willingness within the Parties to allow for trade in products from well-managed populations. For instance, sales of the South African white rhino have generated revenues that helped pay for protection. Listing the species on Appendix I increased the price of rhino horn which fueled more poaching , but the species survived wherever there was adequate on-the-ground protection. Thus field protection may be the primary mechanism that saved the population, but it is likely that field protection would not have been increased without CITES protection.
Commercial trade in wild-caught specimens of these species is illegal permitted only in exceptional licensed circumstances. The Scientific Authority of the exporting country must make a non-detriment finding, assuring that export of the individuals will not adversely affect the wild population. Any trade in these species requires export and import permits. The Management Authority of the exporting state is expected to check that an import permit has been secured and that the importing state is able to care for the specimen adequately.
Notable animal species listed in Appendix I include the red panda Ailurus fulgens , western gorilla Gorilla gorilla , the chimpanzee species Pan spp. In addition, Appendix II can include species similar in appearance to species already listed in the Appendices. International trade in specimens of Appendix II species may be authorized by the granting of an export permit or re-export certificate. In practice, many hundreds of thousands of Appendix II animals are traded annually.
A non-detriment finding and export permit are required by the exporting Party. The same applies for specimens of Appendix I plants artificially propagated for commercial purposes. The species are not necessarily threatened with extinction globally.
In all member countries, trade in these species is only permitted with an appropriate export permit and a certificate of origin from the state of the member country who has listed the species.
Amendments and reservations[ edit ] Amendments to the Convention must be supported by a two-thirds majority who are "present and voting" and can be made during an extraordinary meeting of the COP if one-third of the Parties are interested in such a meeting. The Gaborone Amendment allows regional economic blocs to accede to the treaty. Trade with non-Party states is allowed, although permits and certificates are recommended to be issued by exporters and sought by importers.
Notable reservations include those by Iceland , Japan and Norway on various baleen whale species and those on Falconiformes by Saudi Arabia. It does not explicitly address market demand. Drafting[ edit ] By design, CITES regulates and monitors trade in the manner of a " negative list " such that trade in all species is permitted and unregulated unless the species in question appears on the Appendices or looks very much like one of those taxa.
Then and only then, trade is regulated or constrained. Because the remit of the Convention covers millions of species of plants and animals, and tens of thousands of these taxa are potentially of economic value, in practice this negative list approach effectively forces CITES signatories to expend limited resources on just a select few, leaving many species to be traded with neither constraint nor review.
For example, recently several bird classified as threatened with extinction appeared in the legal wild bird trade because the CITES process never considered their status. If a "positive list" approach were taken, only species evaluated and approved for the positive list would be permitted in trade, thus lightening the review burden for member states and the Secretariat, and also preventing inadvertent legal trade threats to poorly known species.
Development of a future mechanism similar to that of the Montreal Protocol developed nations contribute to a fund for developing nations could allow more funds for non-Secretariat activities. The amounts to be sold comprise approximately 44 tons from Botswana, 9 tons from Namibia, 51 tons from South Africa, and 4 tons from Zimbabwe.
The Chinese government in acknowledged that it had lost track of tons of ivory between and From — the legal trade corresponded with these numbers , live birds More than 2 million live reptiles 2.
Izvajanje konvencije CITES v Sloveniji
CoP17 on Permits and certificates. Signed at Washington, D. Article II Fundamental Principles 1. Appendix I shall include all species threatened with extinction which are or may be affected by trade.
What is CITES?
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
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