He did graduate work at the American University of Beirut. They left during the Armenian Genocide , [8] as Turkish forces reached the city, while the French retreated. Only an infant, he was thought to be dead. He was picked up when he began to cry. His father was a pastor at several Armenian churches in the Boston area in Watertown , Cambridge and Worcester.

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It was rather disconcerting to find out my chosen profession was a bullshit PR function of the corporate world when I was nearing the end of my degree. I gave up reading this the first time but returned to it with energy and enthusiasm. Though readers pay for the pages of advertising, the high volume of pages printed in a newspaper plant because of ad pages reduces the production cost per page.

It is the enormous increase in ad pages that makes for a net increase in the cost of the whole paper. So eliminating these pages would mean smaller printing runs, which would be cheaper in total but higher per page by 70 percent.

A paper with level ads, twelve and a half pages, would cost, at most 14 cents, instead of the 20 cents for the present [] level of ads, forty three pages. Elimination of most of the larger ads in a newspaper would reduce the cost of many manufactured goods whose makers now add the cost of ads to the price.

Even more could be saved by the reduced prices of consumer goods while giving the readers a less expensive paper that would still have twelve pages of ads. It is such a highly profitable avoidance of domestic taxes that it has motivated the major oil companies to emphasize Middle East oil despite its high price and unstable future.

All wars are humane. The status quo is wonderful. Also wonderful are grocery stores, bakeries, drug companies, restaurants, and laundries. Religionists, especially clergy, are perfect. All users of cigarettes are gentle, graceful, healthy, youthful people.

In fact, anyone who uses a tobacco product is a hero. People who commit suicide never do it with pills. All financial institutions are always in good shape. The American way of life is beyond criticism. The readers, listeners, and viewers do not know that these messages are planted by advertisers. They are not supposed to know. They are supposed to think that these ideas are the independent work of professional journalists and playwrights detached from anything commercial.

If the audiences were told that the ideas represented explicit demands of corporations who advertised, the messages would lose their impact. That, almost inevitably, means perpetuation of power without accountability. By following these policies of news, American media corporations benefit from the political sterility of the media. A population unable to select alternative patterns of power sustains the status quo. Items about high costs or flaws in welfare and labor unions are likely to be emphasized and repeated.

Over long periods of time, this results in the public impression that public-sector activities are essentially flawed and should be limited while private enterprises are essentially sound and have no need for change. It must deal with the threat of nuclear annihilation, with growing global tensions between rich nations and poor ones, while within its own borders there is a parallel polarization between haves and have-nots, whites and nonwhites, old and young. Today there is a weakening of national patterns that once constituted an automatic glue.

In times past, within small communities, people of different classes may not have approved of each other but at least were forced to recognize each other. In public schools the children of the poor and the children of the rich came to know each other before the social status of their parents pulled them apart. In large cities the inhabitants have become strangers. They no longer attend the same schools or ride the same public transportation. The automobile has become a social as well as a mechanical isolation chamber in which the rich and poor pass each other in unseeing isolation.

But, like every other book they made me read, this one is fascinating. Bagdikian said in the original edition of this book that within twenty years, less than seven corporations would own all mainstream media. He was right.


The New Media Monopoly: A Completely Revised and Updated Edition With Seven New Chapters



The Media Monopoly


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