APANTELES SP PDF

Brunner, originally published Hymenoptera: Braconidae This genus contains several members that are important larval parasitoids of lepidopteran pests. Several species of Apanteles attack leafrollers. Apanteles sp. Hosts Apanteles attacks the four leafroller species known as pests of fruit crops in the Northwest. It is likely that larvae of other Lepidoptera serve as alternate hosts for Apanteles outside orchards.

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Brunner, originally published Hymenoptera: Braconidae This genus contains several members that are important larval parasitoids of lepidopteran pests. Several species of Apanteles attack leafrollers. Apanteles sp. Hosts Apanteles attacks the four leafroller species known as pests of fruit crops in the Northwest.

It is likely that larvae of other Lepidoptera serve as alternate hosts for Apanteles outside orchards. Life stages Larva Leafroller parasite, Apanteles sp. Braconidae E. Beers The larva of Apanteles spends most of its life inside the host larva.

It is usually only observed after it leaves the host when ready to pupate. At this time it is a typical maggot form and is a creamy white to light green. Pupa The pupa is the life stage most commonly seen. It is contained within a white fuzzy cocoon. Usually more than one cocoon, and as many as 15, will be found within the leaf shelter constructed by the doomed host larva.

The female has a short ovipositor at the end of the abdomen. Life history Apanteles overwinters inside the leafroller host larva. When mature, Apanteles larvae leave their host and spin individual cocoons in the leaf shelter that contained the host. Apanteles cocoons can be found in late May and early June when unparasitized leafroller larvae are beginning to pupate.

Adult parasitoids emerge in 7 to 10 days. When leafroller eggs of the summer generation hatch, in late June to early July, the adult parasitoids attack newly hatched larvae. Cocoons are again found in late July or early August, and adult Apanteles parasitize small leafroller larvae in the fall before they move to overwintering sites and construct hibernacula.

Monitoring The presence and abundance of Apanteles can be determined by examining leaf shelters of leafroller larvae in late May and again in late July.

Even if the parasitoid has already emerged from the cocoon, its remnants provide evidence of a successful attack. Management Apanteles adults are susceptible to broad-spectrum insecticides, which probably accounts for the reduced level of parasitism of summer generation leafroller larvae in commercial orchards. Since Apanteles has not been successfully reared in the laboratory, artificial release in orchards to augment populations does not seem to be an option.

However, Apanteles could be conserved and encouraged in orchards where broad-spectrum insecticides are replaced with mating disruption and soft insecticides for pest control.

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APANTELES SP PDF

Zulmaran It is possible that Apanteles sanctivincenti is yet another name for that same species, meaning that three different names in three different genera were applied to the same species by the same author in the same paper! This group comprises 14 species apantelew is defined by the hypopygium either unfolded or with a relatively wide and translucid fold with none or very few pleats only in the outermost area of fold. Austin and Dangerfield revised this species and provided additional photos and details. Apaanteles length more than 4. Tarsal claws pectinate, or cleft with a basal spine [Hosts: Among Hymenoptera, Apanteeles Braconidae is the most diverse and apaanteles encountered parasitoid subfamily, with many hundreds of species delineated to date, almost all undescribed.

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