A dominant view around the notion of informality was that it is generally the poverty struck urban poor and the migrants Georg Simmel living in slums who fall into the category of informal Robert Perk. Scholars have also narrowed down the informal into categories like vendors, barbers, servants traders found in streets, back alleys etc Lloyd George Reynolds. It is also important to point out in a country like India, the everyday lives of the people comes to a stop without the services of poor as maid, drivers etc. The arguments provided by Ananya Roy have debunked the stereotypical notion around informality and discussed the the issue from a new vantage point. Ananya Roy dismisses the notion that informality is the by product of existence of urban poor in a society and emphasizes on the fact that different forces and their coordination to fulfil the interests of the power holders in the name of public domain is an important determinant of informality in the society.
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Hijri Shamsi Calendar Urban informality Urban informality is a huge topic. I have included an annotated bibliography on sources below. And, since I have opened up this site to public access, I have moved direct links to articles to a password-protected page.
Note that the law-makers, almost by definition, are the upper class in any city. Since the elite set the rules, they can declare when others break the rules. Immigration in the US is a vivid example: thousands of people take tremendous risks to get into the US simply to make a living. The latter type is called informal. Since about , urban scholars have gone one step further: they have documented how urban elites manage the boundary between activities that are considered formal versus informal—often for the benefit of upper classes.
Commented bibliography on urban informality: Because of your interest in informality I have compiled a fairly long list. I put it in chronological order because the scholarship really does build incrementally over 40 years. Turner, John. COMMENT: John Turner was always a better activist than writer, but this was one of his best articles because here he focuses on concepts and analysis, not just rhetoric. Now it is difficult to find a hardcopy of this article.
Hart, Keith. Perlman, Janice E. The myth of marginality: Urban poverty and politics in Rio de Janeiro. Berkeley: University of California Press. Ward, Peter M. Self-help housing : A critique. Bronx, N. For example, informal housing is often professionally built by contractors. Secondly, informal housing is not necessarily owner-occupied. Perlman, Janice.
The other path: The invisible revolution in the Third World. Endorsed by world leaders including Nixon and Clinton. Includes great fieldwork conducted by the ILD in Lima in the early s, but the take-away message is that poorer households are burdened with red tape, and the self-evident solution is to just cut the red tape—deregulate, formalize, and privatize.
De Soto does not mull over why there are so many barriers to formalization. He does mention bigotry against indios, and mentions a bit of rent-seeking bureaucrats who want bribes. Bromley, Ray. Yiftachel, Oren. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell. COMMENT: This article is not directly about urban informality, but it helped reorient how we think about the function of urban planning. If we accept that urban informality is produced by the urban regime, then planning agencies and practices are the specific instruments use for this process.
Pamuk, Ayse. Bayat, Assef. Auyero, Javier. Now, whole populations are economically disconnected and treated as irrelevant. Graham, Stephen, and Simon Marvin. Splintering urbanism: networked infrastructures, technological mobilities, and the urban condition. London ; New York: Routledge. While Chadwick and then the Shaftesbury Report convinced wealthier urbanites to pay up and fund comprehensive urban networks, more recent technologies have made it possible to break that bargain.
Alas, this book is now rare and hard to find. Appadurai, Arjun. Here is an optimistic portrayal of NGOs that are learning an alliance method of extending their reach and leverage. Roy, Ananya. City requiem, Calcutta: Gender and the politics of poverty. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Roy, Ananya, and Nezar AlSayyad. Lanham, Md. COMMENT: in this edited volume a number of leading scholars got together and collectively reframed the discussion about urban informality. Davis, Mike.
For better or worse, this is the most famous article about urban informality for the general public. Two years later Davis turned this into a best-selling book. This article, with the same name, covers all the main points he covers in the book.
Thus, we are doomed!! But seriously, he does a decent job of characterizing the concept of urban informality, and since this is one of the only texts on urban informality you might find in an airport bookstore, you have to seriously consider how it frames the overall debate.
Fawaz, Mona, and Bishwapriya Sanyal. Oxford: Elsevier. The builds on this two years later in a special issue of Planning Theory.
Hijri Shamsi Calendar Urban informality Urban informality is a huge topic. I have included an annotated bibliography on sources below. And, since I have opened up this site to public access, I have moved direct links to articles to a password-protected page. Note that the law-makers, almost by definition, are the upper class in any city. Since the elite set the rules, they can declare when others break the rules. Immigration in the US is a vivid example: thousands of people take tremendous risks to get into the US simply to make a living. The latter type is called informal.
Roy does work in three areas: The analysis of urban poverty in the global South ; The investigation of new frontiers of capital accumulation, notably the conversion of economies of poverty into globally circulating capital; and The examination of new formations of global urbanism, notably bold urban planning experiments undertaken by nation-states in Asia. Roy engages with feminist and ethnographic methodologies and often draws upon post-colonial feminism for theoretical inspiration. In the field of urban studies , Roy is well known for advancing the theoretical concept of "urban informality"  and the call for "new geographies of theory" that are attentive to the urban condition of the global South. At Berkeley, Roy taught graduate and undergraduate students. In , she was awarded the Distinguished Teaching Award, the highest teaching honor UC Berkeley bestows on its faculty. In , Roy was the recipient of the Golden Apple Teaching award, the only teaching award given by the student body. Most recently, Roy received the Excellence in Achievement Award of the California Alumni Association, a lifetime achievement recognition.
Planning and Informality in India by Avnika Nagar